Mardin is one of the poetic cities of the Southeast, giving the impression that time was established with its architectural, ethnographic, archaeological, historical and visual v alues. In the region, Mardin is one of the poetic cities of the Southeast, which gives the impression that time was established with its architectural, ethnographic, archaeological, historical and visual values. During the excavations in the region, BC. Mardin, which has b een settled in the classical sense starting from 4500; It is an important open air museum that has been able to combine many buildings from Subari, Hurri, Sumerian, Akkadian, Mitani, Hittite, Assyrian, Scythian, Babylon, Persian, Macedonian, Abgar, Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Seljuk, Artukid and Ottoman periods. There are many important areas for scientific excavations in the city. As a result of these excavations, it will be possible to reveal the history of the city better. Sumerian King Lugarzergiz, BC. In 2850, it took Mardin under its rule in its expedition reaching to the Mediterranean. The Sumerians, who reached an advanced level in urban planning, irrigation a nd agriculture, lost their power as a result of extensive conquests, 30 years later, BC. They left Mardin to Akadlar in 2820. Akadlar, BC. In 2500, they agreed with the Sumerians and established the Akkadian-Sumerian State. When Hamurabi, the sixth member of the Amuri family, took the Sumerian lands under the rule of Babylon, this time he established the Babylonian State (2200-1925 BC), then when he attacked upper Mesopotamia, he invaded Mardin and annexed it to its lands. B.C. The Hittites, who occupied Mardin in 1925, left the city a year later. Later, the Aryan race Midiller, coming from Iran, captured Mardin and its surroundings. The Midillians, who ruled for 500 years, were subjected to taxes to the Egyptians for an unknown reason, and they married a Midil princess to the Egyptian pharaoh. B.C. In 1367, a civil war broke out between Midillers and Assyrian King Asuri Balit, who took advantage of this, annexed Mardin and its surroundings. B.C. Some Aryan tribes coming from Anatolia in 1190 took Mardin. 60 years later, Assyrian I. Tıplalpalasır; After passing through Sinjar, Nusaybin and Mardin, attacking Kemecin, which was protected by 20 thousand Maşiki forces and defeating them, he took Mardin and its surroundings again. B.C. In 1060, during the reign of Asurnasırbal I, the Hittites united and defeated the Assyrians near Gılganuş. Mardin came under Assyrian rule after the Assyrians got stronger again. B.C. Mardin, which was in the hands of the Assyrians until 800, later came under the rule of the Urartu Kingdom and remained under the rule of Urartu for 50 years during the time of King Mimes. After Alexander the Great conquered Egypt, BC. In 335, he came to Mesopotamia to go to Iran and passed through Mardin. Alexander, who invaded here as well, BC. After his death in Babylon on May 28, 323, the state is divided among the commanders of Alexander. Since Mardin was in the eastern part of BC. In 311, it would be captured by General Slevkos, called Nikanır. In 131 BC, Mardin and its surroundings joined the lands of the Kingdom of Urfa (Abgarlar). M.S. In 249, the Roman ruler Filibos started a rebellion in the fifth year of his reign and IX. He expelled Abgar f rom the country, and Hapsioğlu Uralyonos was appointed as the governor of the city. Meanwhile, Mardin also came under Roman rule because it was connected to Urfa. In 250 AD, Dakiyos conquered Persia and restored Nusaybin, which was destroyed in the meantime. King Şad Buhari, who worships fire and sun in 330, stays in Mardin Castle because of his illness. When he got well during his stay in the castle, he built a pavilion and lived here for 12 years. Later, the King brought many soldiers and civilians from his homeland Persia and settled them in Mardin. Thanks to the people brought up to 442, many developments take place in the city. A relentless plague epidemic that swept the people in 442 made the city uninhabitable. Approximately 100 years later, a Roman commander named Ursiyanos succeeded in building Mardin in 47 years with a great team and made the people come here again. During this time, Dara, the famous Persian center, was rebuilt. The Byzantines continued their existence until the occupation of Ilyas Bin Ganem, one of the commanders of Prophet Umar, in 640. Mardin and its surroundings came under the rule of the Umayyads in 692 and the Abbasids in 824 during the time of Caliph Satisfied. In this period, Islam spread rapidly. It coincided with the year 895 that Hamdanis, who ruled here between 885-978, captured the castle definitively. They have built walls in some parts of the natural castle and have restored some parts of the castle so that it remains upright until today. In 990, the Mervanis captured the lands of Hamdanis, who could only hold on to Mosul, one by one, and captured Mardin. By building bazaars and mosques in Mardin and its surroundings, they revive this important city on the Silk Road from a commercial perspective. After the victory of Alparslan in Malazgirt, the Marwani State, which was gradually weakened as a result of the invasions of the Turks reaching Anatolia, was defeated by the Seljuks in Nusaybin in 1089 and came under their domination. Provincial Gazi Bey from Artukids captured Mardin in 1105 and made it the capital of the state. As he conquered Aleppo, İl Gazi Bey gained great reputation for his struggles against the Crusaders. During these struggles, he defeated the Crusader Prince of Antioch, Roger, and captured Silvan. After the death of the Provincial Gazi, his sons and nephews came to the press of the state and dominated Diyarbakır and Harput Castle and its surroundings, defeating the Crusaders, Franks, the Count of Urfa, the Crusader of Bilecik and the King of Jerusalem, Bodven. Thus, the Artukids establish a great state in the region. During the 304-year rule of this state, many mosques, madrasas, baths and caravanserais were built and many mosques, madrasas and monasteries were repaired. Even if Timur tried to besiege and occupy Mardin Castle in 1393 during the Artukids period, he could not be successful. Timur begins to prepare for a new siege to capture Mardin in Ramadan, 1395, by establishing a tent in Kızıltepe. The people of Mardin took shelter in the castle and failed the greatest army and ruler of that time by resisting Timur's violent attacks. The Artukids attempt to restore Mardin due to this success of the people. The siege of the Karakoyunlu State in the 15th century to destroy this state hinders these attempts. In 1409, the people could not withstand this siege any longer and surrender the city's fortress to the Karakoyunlu State in accordance with the agreement. Mardin remains under the rule of Karakoyunlu for 61 years. During this process, the tribes rebelled and resisted the regime of the Karakoyunlu people and from time to time took over the state administration. The Akkoyunlu State, who defeated the Karakoyunlu State in 1462, also seized the sovereignty of the castle. Kasım Bey, who came to Mardin as Pasha during this period, attempts to repair the city and the castle destroyed by Timur, and builds the Kasım Pasha Madrasa, which crowned this successful work and managed to stand with magnificence to this day. At the beginning of the 16th century, Shah Ismail, who conquered the Akkoyunlu State, succeeded in establishing a strong Shiite state. In this period, he would not hesitate to enter Anatolia and kill those who do not accept Shiism. Seeing this situation, the ruler of Mardin handed over the key of the castle to Shah Ismail without bloodshed in order to protect the city and the people against cruelty and plundering. Mardin was definitely taken over by the Ottomans during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim, who organized the Egypt expedition. Diyarbakır (Amid) Governor Bıyıklı Mehmet Pasha and Kurdish Scholar İdris-i Bitlisi besieged Mardin and its castle for more than nine months in 1516, on the order of Yavuz Sultan Selim, Ottoman reinforcements sent from various provinces, with the forces of Kurdish Beys from Eastern Anatolia. united and attacked the castle many times. However, the heroic resistance of the people caused both sides to have a hard time. When the expectation of assistance to the Eagle Nest came to nothing, Bıyıklı Mehmet Pasha and İdris-i Bitlisi gave the good news that they had entered the castle to Yavuz Sultan Selim, who was in Egypt on April 7, 1517, and made the first caliph of the Ottoman Empire very happy. In 1517, Mardin and its region were added to the Ottoman lands, and it was attached to the Diyarbakır Beylerbeyliği as a sanjak. In 1518, the Mardin Sanjak consisted of the Merkez district and the towns of Savur and Nusaybin. Mardin remained in the position of Diyarbakır-Baghdad and the Sanjak of Mosul for a long time. In the Mardin sanjak, the people were divided into two parts, nomadic and settled. In terms of settled folk beliefs, Jews consisted of Christians (Armenians, Assyrians and Chaldeans), Muslims and some Shams (Sun worshipers).